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A New York Times Bestseller
Finalist for the Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize
Longlisted for the Wellcome Book Prize
A rigorous, skeptical, deeply reported look at the new science behind the mind’s surprising ability to heal the body
Have you ever felt a surge of adrenaline after narrowly avoiding an accident? Salivated at the sight (or thought) of a sour lemon? Felt turned on just from hearing your partner’s voice? If so, then you’ve experienced how dramatically the workings of your mind can affect your body.
Yet while we accept that stress or anxiety can damage our health, the idea of “healing thoughts” was long ago hijacked by New Age gurus and spiritual healers. Recently, however, serious scientists from a range of fields have been uncovering evidence that our thoughts, emotions and beliefs can ease pain, heal wounds, fend off infection and heart disease and even slow the progression of AIDS and some cancers.
In Cure, award-winning science writer Jo Marchant travels the world to meet the physicians, patients and researchers on the cutting edge of this new world of medicine. We learn how meditation protects against depression and dementia, how social connections increase life expectancy and how patients who feel cared for recover from surgery faster. We meet Iraq war veterans who are using a virtual arctic world to treat their burns and children whose ADHD is kept under control with half the normal dose of medication. We watch as a transplant patient uses the smell of lavender to calm his hostile immune system and an Olympic runner shaves vital seconds off his time through mind-power alone.
Drawing on the very latest research, Marchant explores the vast potential of the mind’s ability to heal, lays out its limitations and explains how we can make use of the findings in our own lives. With clarity and compassion, Cure points the way towards a system of medicine that treats us not simply as bodies but as human beings.
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People always complain that they are unemployed but have they ever really tried hard to get employed by a company? Well, they might have tried getting employed by a company but some might have failed to make it there. Moreover, it is more often seen that some people do not even choose such jobs. It is because jobs such as content writing jobs are in high demand. These content writing jobs include technical writing jobs, creative writing jobs, and writing SEO optimized articles for different websites.
You can choose whatever niche you have knowledge in. If you have a technical knowledge, you can choose technical content writing jobs, which are booming section of content writing. These jobs are easily available at content writing sites such as contentmart.com. At contentmart.com or any other similar platform, writers can find the jobs as clients regularly give projects to the writer out there.
HOW WORK IN HOME BASED CONTENT WRITER JOBS
Gone are the days when people would think that if you have to work, you have to go to the office. In this world of high connectivity with internet, people are finding jobs that are giving them opportunities to work right from the comfort of their homes. One of such emerging jobs is technical writing jobs from home.
- All you need is to have an internet connection and your computer.
- Research online which content writing websites would be best for you. Find out their reputation from the employees. One of the best sites where people have bagged technology writing jobs is contentmart.com.
- Register yourself as a writer at your favorite content writing website.
- Fill your profiles and details to look trustworthy to the clients out there.
- Take the starting projects at a discounted rate. Increase your rate after gaining some experience at technical content writing jobs.
WHY TO WORK IN HOME BASED CONTENT WRITER JOBS
There might be several reasons of why home based content writing jobs are flourishing these days. We are listing few of the reasons:
- Even if it is raining outside, you can continue your work without any hassles. Just know that you have a proper internet connectivity to continue working as technical content writing jobs need constant touch with clients. You don’t have to commute for your work. No problem whether it is raining or it is snowing because you would be working right from your home.
- You can have extra cash without going outside. In this world of amazing connectivity, many peoples are fascinated with technical writing jobs. Moreover, many of the writers are getting the job they love.
Meanwhile the demands of content writers is increasing day by day in earnest, there should be no reason why you should not take one of the emerging technical content writing jobs in a content writing website.
The Web is an excellent source for anybody searching for technology articles. Whether you’re students doing research study or perhaps a researcher who must keep informed of guides and the most recent results inside your area of undertaking, there are lots of resources of technology articles online which are not amiss for you personally.
Several resources of technology posts would be the guides by which these articles appeared’s the web sites. For instance, some papers submit posts in normal technology areas that seem regular, like the New York Times. Some publications contain both nonscientific and medical data, for example National Geographic. Technology is covered by some guides from the common viewpoint within their posts, such as for example Technology publications and Common Science.
Agents and secret enthusiasts have employed invisible tattoo alike for centuries to broadcast communications that were invisible with their lovers. Hidden ink isn’t only anything you view in James Bond shows; hundreds from fresh fruit juices to exclusively designed chemicals, to family liquids, of liquids, may be used as ink. Within this research test, develop into a master of ‘steganography’ by building your own personal invisible tattoo from baking soda and deliver key messages for your friends:
THE THING YOU NEED:
This research test works since substances including vinegar or baking soda are sometimes moderately acidic or alkaline, and this acid or starting weakens document. The base in the baking soda remains within the paper after the water has disappeared as well as the paper has dried. The areas of the paper burn or change brown before the rest of the paper does, revealing the concept prepared around the document if the paper is then kept near a heat supply such as a lamp or hot iron!
One of the ways for your individual to learn the message is always to hold the report up to temperature source, such as a lamp, warm metal or it may even be put in an oven. The baking soda can cause the writing within the document to turn brown make it possible for the recipient to see the concept!
Allow the ‘tattoo’ to dry out completely before publishing becomes totally hidden. Your secret information has become prepared to be delivered to the recipient.
• Tap water
THE DIRECTION TO GO:
3. Use a cotton swab or fine paintbrush to create a note onto the publishing paper that is bright, utilizing water remedy and the baking soda as unseen ‘ink’. Be sure to drop the swab into the ‘tattoo’ generally so that the person can read the concept easily.
4. There would be to read the message another solution to paint over the paper with purple grape juice. The meaning can look in an alternative shade!
5. Thoroughly mix equal pieces tap-water soda powder in a jar until mixed.
If you are using the grape juice approach to reveal the message, grape juice and the baking soda respond together in an acid-starting effect, producing a shade change inside the report to enable the recipient to see the secret message. Grape juice concentrate results in a far more apparent color change than standard grape juice. There are numerous other home fluids that may be used-to create invisible ink. Utilising the warmth strategy, you may also utilize vinegar white-wine, apple juice, and even dairy dairy!
Everybody has observed the exhausted old technology fair task, like even the styrofoam solarsystem or the volcano, that have been favorites for what is like decades of numerous parents. These tasks are simple and easy in the guardianis perspective, however they are extremely poor options for that kids concerned. Why?
These would be the type of tasks which are therefore well known that actually the pupils understand what will occur. And the pupils aren’t understanding something when that occurs, as well as their efficiency suffers throughout technology festivals due to its demonstration part. Science judges have gotten tired of these kinds of tasks, and that is a large issue for pupils who try to get prizes. Ultimately, this sort of task is just great for that parents, and remarkably, most of these tasks are especially superior!
The thing you need to locate is just a distinctive technology fair task, or atleast something which beats on these tasks that are tired old. Not just may this aid your youngster learn it may give a far greater possibility of earning the science fair to them. Frequently, these contests may include perhaps a good money reward or a grant, as well as the ones that don’t can often result in a technology grant afterwards down the road. That is clearly a good advantage, and besides the data, the levels, and also the experience-your kid gets using their involvement, it offers an excellent cause to take action special to you.
What exactly type of technology fair jobs that are distinctive exist? The web appears like a good first choice, but provided the frequency useful, you are able to assure that big technology festivals incorporate a duplicate task, particularly if you got your concept from site or the common technology honest blog. Actually in a little technology fair, or an in-course technology fair, you’ve to reckon that there are greater than a few individuals who are currently visiting the exact same sites that you’re, such as the academics who are grading your learners and also the judges. Replicate tasks imply difficulty for the academics and also that judges, because it negates the real advantage of technology festivals: having an knowledge. They need one to develop anything distinctive, by yourself. Additionally, about what type of experience-your child is having you’ve to think. A technology fair is just an opportunity for them to state pursuits and their very own imagination, and pulling an inexpensive or easy task from an internet site is not assisting them out any.
You can test taking a look at information websites aswell, or visiting the collection for publications, but these resources frequently supply out-of- extremely challenging tasks, or day, dull.
Possess the kid develop anything of the own, or subsequently ask them to include their own feedback into some facet of a fascinating and much more distinctive technology fair project if that does not function. You are able to consider some aid from the web, particularly about the internet which have truly strong tasks, and publications or recommendations with increased distinctive suggestions, but ensure that you include anything for them in the sites!
In case your kid needs help using their science project and also you lack medical understanding or computer abilities, don’t unafraid to consider aid. A lot of those members useful packages will be offered by only websites like ready made spreadsheets and graphs . You may also get aid from online teachers, who’re often technology majors in university who are able to assist you with a few advice that is basic.
One need not create any substantial reviews of unique media to supply evidence for this failure. It is enough to determine how activities has managed to obtain more insurance in a variety of media throughout the last few years visavis science. You can disagree this is indeed since there are usually some sports events occurring throughout the earth which normally bring the interest of advertising. But argument listed here is that controlled exercise, technological group and labs over the planet all can be changed into what’re named ‘media functions’ if pains are taken by science communicators to do this reputation for science. Foremost and first it will involve scientists’ maximum cooperation.
Be that as it might, objective through this report is to emphasize the requirements and limitations of science popularisation so that there seems a fundamental change in the manner of taking a look at this subject. Hopefully, it’ll lead to more efficient strategies to popularise research among the masses.
For example, anniversaries of researchers, institutions, organizations and organizations, like the Earth Health Day, etc., could be celebrated; debates and talks with the anxious scientists tidied; and opportunities of enterprises and anxious labs placed open to marketing and people.
Research writing is an art
Science popularisation is mainly accomplished by research- skilled researchers and experienced people. It’s therefore looked at more as a scientific activity as opposed to other things. But science publishing is more of an art form rather than a technology. All-the publishing capabilities are required to make a good presentation of technology although it is not unscientific just inside the sense-one must have clinical information. It’s because of the present insufficient emphasis on science popularisation’s art part that field of action has suffered todate. These few scientists or science – folks who have practised it and have knowingly or unconsciously known the art of science writing, have merely succeeded in popularising science.
Some observations that are critical
With popularising science over the years, the author’s encounter has compelled him to arrive at some postulates. They’re simply centered on intuition and knowledge. Any study hasn’t been executed to back them up with details and numbers. Infact, disprove or much research is needed to demonstrate them. If in case they’re shown, they’re able to simply be named the ‘Regulations of Science Popularisation’ since despite the greatest of our efforts we’ve not been able to popularise science the way we wish among the people. There must be some hidden guidelines governing our attempts to popularise science. These postulates are mentioned as follows:
Technology is a human activity
The second reason common research does not mark together with the people is basically because it is not expected as being a human action but an activity of researchers who only rely on the search for truth – and nothing but fact! Science’s human area is very ignored in-all common science displays. The follies and prejudices of the unreasonable circumstances where medical function is usually performed, the mental lifestyle of scientists, scientists and discoveries and innovations etc., are quite often intentionally not outlined worrying that it’d offer terrible label to science and technological research. In short, the individual experience of research or clinical research is usually overlooked in common science displays. A solid need is thus to provide science a human face. It would not just imply introducing tales that are individual to popular science presentations but also speaking about realities in scientific investigation.
Idea of the iceberg speech
Actually, common research demonstration must be just like the iceberg’s idea. It will nonetheless produce one also aware although not only acquainted with the iceberg’s tip of the iceberg hanging underneath the water’s invisible bigger part. Quite simply, it should disclose little about technology but enough to make one realise that research having its overall ramification’s lifestyle. Oneis attention will arouse enough so that one would like to probe more into that technology. It will definitely not inform everything of a science but in the same moment it should not miss technology.
The next reason why popular research presentations typically get not narrow off the draw and produce the market yawn and choose something else will be science communicators’ failure to distinguish between complex document writing and science writing that is common, due to background or their controlled teaching. They try and put in to a technology speech that is common as much as they realize or find out about a topic.
Postulates of science popularisation
1st: Just those components of research obtain focus in a society, which fit its goals or which inspire awe.
2nd: A science communicator will enforce their restricted tips of scientists, science and scientific investigation upon the crowd.
3rd: the total amount of place given in various press of a nation to research could be the grade of lifestyle of its average citizen’s listing.
4th: The quality of speech or science transmission in a region is proportional for the quality of technology produced in it.
5th: To popularise science would be to humanise science.
Specific issues can be deduced by one from these postulates. The primary postulate indicates that folks atlarge read technology because the subject is sensational topical or controversial or as it acts their objective or just excites their curiosity. Technology is only study by a few for the sake of knowledge per se. So that technology could be more effectively popularised much study is required to discover these matters. As an example, health technology and atmosphere interest people at-large, astronomy and place intrigue them, Nobel Laureates, UFOs, etc., are held in amazement by them.
The 2Nd postulate is not safe for technology itself. Actively or unconsciously, the person imbibes the slender or minimal image of experts research and culture of science in the communicator, whether he be Peter Medawar or Jacob Bronowski. Ideas including scientists are insane persons or scientific study is yet another job are projects of science communicators. That makes research communicator an individual that is very sensible.
The sixth, the final however, not the significant postulate that is least, although evident, reminds us so that masses aren’t afraid of it that we should give a human experience to science. It’s science popularisation’s fundamental aim.
The next and fourth postulates are intuitive relationships between two things or activities. By getting information from various places, further research is required to show or disprove both of these regulations. However, one should incorporate here that in India we increase research coverage in our press to increase at the first option nevertheless it typically concerns nothing. Additionally, while publishing a favorite science guide over a subject one often needs a scientist performing research in that very subject’s help. However in India the researcher of the topic that is concerned is usually not available for assessment so when a result our writings lack color , verve and the necessary quality.
Christmas tree of science popularisation
Necessarily, the percent of individuals reading guides would be hardly large because the top of the Christmas tree indicates. However it is crucial since the position of any channel should not be underestimated, to learn this tree and every channel should really be given equal significance simultaneously. For instance, in case a student’s curiosity about research is excited by science fair or ‘Jatha’ placed inside the town, it has to become experienced and managed even, papers and by wallpapers guides; normally, the curiosity of one die and eventually would hole. Different supplementing press should be distributed around the pupil in-form of libraries. Therefore, science popularisation’s Christmas – tree must be watered and helped carefully to generate a science literate culture.
The purpose of pulling the ‘Christmas tree of science popularisation’ is to demonstrate although every choice has a crucial function and its own meaning to play in communication, the importance of varied marketing that take science to the masses. But except a person increases the pine, as their curiosity about technology is excited or increased up – quite simply, except one begins to see then, publications and magazines books – he/she wouldn’t are becoming completely research literate.
In line with the postulates forwarded here there are (confirmed unknown) restrictions towards the level technology can be popularised one of the people. It’s extremely hard to really have a fully technology literate community. Additionally, technology communicators need to take towards the people into account aforementioned elements about science popularisation for connection of research.
One will not need to produce any comprehensive surveys of advertising that is distinct to supply proof for this disappointment. It’s enough to see how sports has were able to acquire more protection in various press during the last several decades vis-a-vis science that is. It’s possible to claim that this is so since there are constantly some activities activities occurring throughout the world which naturally pull the attention of marketing. But contention here is that laboratories, medical community and clinical task over the world can all also be turned into what’re named ‘advertising functions’ if science communicators take pains to achieve this reputation for technology. Foremost and first it’ll require the utmost cooperation of experts.
Be that as it can, so that appears a fundamental change in the manner of taking a look at this issue purpose through this paper is to highlight the necessities and constraints of science popularisation. Preferably, it will cause more effective ways of popularise research one of the people.
As an example, anniversaries of organisations, institutions, researchers and communities, etc., such as the World Health Morning, may be celebrated; discussions and conversations with all the concerned scientists organised; and opportunities of troubled laboratories and organisations thrown available to marketing and people.
Science can be a human activity
The next reason why common research doesn’t tick with all the masses is because it is not predicted as a human task but an action of professionals who simply have confidence in the look for truth – and only reality! The individual area of research is totally ignored in every popular technology presentations. The follies of the irrational circumstances where scientific work is frequently performed, the psychological life of scientists, scientists and breakthroughs and inventions etc., can be frequently intentionally not outlined worrying that it would present negative label to technology and clinical study. In popular research shows, the human face of technology or scientific research is usually overlooked in a nutshell. There is thus a solid need to present a human face to science. It’d not only imply referring to facts in clinical study but in addition introducing reports that are human to common technology displays.
Idea of the iceberg display
The next reason why technology displays that are preferred choose something else and make the crowd yawn and often move wide off the tag could be science communicators’ inability to distinguish between common science publishing and complex document writing, due to their scientific education or background. They try and stack into a popular research speech as much as they recognize or learn about an interest.
Really, common research speech must be such as the hint of the iceberg. It will nevertheless make one also aware although not only knowledgeable about the tip of the iceberg of the hidden bigger part of the iceberg hanging underneath the water. Quite simply, it should uncover enough to generate one appreciate the lifestyle of the technology with its overall ramification although little about science. It will motivate one’s attention enough to ensure that one wish to probe more into that science. In the same period science should not be missed by it although it will certainly not tell everything about a science.
Some observations that are important
With popularising science over time, the author’s expertise has compelled him to reach at some postulates. They’re basically based on knowledge and intuition. Any investigation hasn’t been executed to back them up with figures and details. Actually, much research must demonstrate them. If in case they are proven, they can simply be called the ‘Regulations of Science Popularisation’ because regardless of the greatest of our initiatives we’ve not had the opportunity to popularise technology just how we wish one of the people. There should be some hidden guidelines regulating our attempts to popularise science. As follows these postulates are mentioned:
Research writing is an art
Science popularisation is mainly accomplished by science- professional professionals and qualified people. It is thus looked upon more as being a scientific activity in the place of whatever else. But science writing is more of a skill rather than a science. It is scientific solely while in the sense one needs to have medical knowledge but all of the writing capabilities have to make a superior presentation of science. It’s because of the current insufficient emphasis on science popularisation’s art part that area of activity has endured to-date. Those few researchers or science – experienced individuals who have practised it and have knowingly or automatically acknowledged the art of science writing, have only succeeded in popularising science.
Postulates of science popularisation
1st: Only those aspects of science acquire focus in a culture, which fit its objectives or which inspire awe.
3rd: the quantity of place allocated in different press of the place to technology could be the directory of existence of its average citizen’s caliber.
2nd: A science communicator will enforce his / her minimal suggestions of professionals, science and technological study upon the crowd.
4th: presentation or research connection in a country’s quality is proportional to the quality of technology stated in it.
Fifth: To popularise science will be to humanise research.
It’s possible to consider certain issues . The very first postulate implies that individuals at-large read science since it assists their goal or because the issue is amazing, relevant or questionable or just excites their awareness. A few merely study science for knowledge’s benefit perse. To ensure that research could be more effectively popularised, much study is required to discover these topics. For instance, health research and environment attention people at house , astronomy and large fascinate them, Nobel Laureates etc., are placed in awe by them.
The 2Nd postulate is not safe for science itself. Automatically or consciously, the layman imbibes the thin or restricted picture of science, researchers and lifestyle of science in the communicator, whether he be Jacob Bronowski or Peter Medawar. Ideas including experts are crazy people or technological investigation is yet another profession are creations of science communicators. Science communicator is made an extremely responsible person by that.
The fifth, the past but not minimal critical postulate, although clear, reminds us that we must supply a human encounter to research so that people aren’t scared of it. It’s science popularisation’s essential aim.
The 3rd and fourth postulates are spontaneous connections between activities or two unrelated items. By using information from various places, further investigation is necessary to confirm or disprove those two guidelines. Nevertheless, one must add below it usually involves nothing although that in India we increase science insurance within our advertising to increase in the first opportunity. Likewise, while producing a popular technology post over a subject one frequently requires the assistance of a scientist doing research for the reason that very topic. However in Asia the worried subject’s scientist is frequently unavailable for session so that as a result our articles lack the mandatory quality, verve.
Christmas tree of science popularisation
Whilst the top of the Christmas tree suggests always, the portion of individuals reading publications wouldbe hardly large. However it is a must since the role of any medium should not be underestimated to know this tree and every choice should be granted equal significance simultaneously. For example, in case a scholaris curiosity about research is stimulated by science good or ‘Jatha’ while in the community, managed and it has to be sustained magazines by wallpapers as well as textbooks; otherwise, the attention of one might flag and finally die. Additional supplementing marketing must be made available to the pupil in-form of public libraries, for instance. Consequently, tended and the Christmas tree of science popularisation has to be watered carefully to make a research literate culture.
The purpose of pulling on the ‘Christmas – tree of science popularisation’ is always to illustrate the value of various advertising that consider research towards the masses, although every method has a vital part along with its own importance to perform in communication. But until a person climbs up the pine, as his or her fascination with research is aroused or elevated – quite simply, unless one starts to read then, journals and papers guides – he or she wouldn’t have become totally technology literate.
In line with the postulates sent here-there are (confirmed unidentified) restrictions to the degree research might be popularised one of the people. It is difficult to truly have a literate society that is entirely technology. Furthermore, science communicators need to consider aforementioned factors about science popularisation for more effective communication of technology to the masses.
Physics is a major branch of science with many interesting principles which students can apply for their science project. From engineering to simple daily occurrences, this is one of the favorite discussions in a science class. The hovercraft, although not commonly used in urban transportation means, is a perfect example. And so you’re off to a good start.
Identify the materials that you can use. Understanding how to build hovercraft vehicles is the same with any vessel of this type. To come up with one for your project is simply improvising the materials and bringing the applied science to its miniature version. As mentioned, the objective is to show the principles.
Here are the basic things you will need:
1. Platform – You can use a wooden disk about the size of a manhole cover. You want a science project that is portable and easy to carry. So keep the size handy. This is probably the biggest in your hovercraft project.
2. Any vacuum cleaner or leaf blower – You can use the vacuum cleaner to provide air flow into your platform. You may use any other gadget as long as you can put the air flow in reverse but this is the easiest to find. Your build hovercraft model must follow the air cushion system of the actual hovercraft.
3. A plastic sheet that is flexible – This will serve as your improvised skirt. The skirt is supposed to trap air below your platform. When doing so, it builds pressure and thus creates a cushion of air. Because of the plastic sheet’s elastic properties, it will only allow limited air to disperse out of its contained space.
4. Fasteners – Use fasteners such as bolts and nuts to fasten all these materials together.
5. A detailed illustration of your science project hovercraft – To do this, you need to check on other hovercraft kits. Learn the principles. The components should be similar to the materials you have. For example, the fanning system in actual hovercrafts is represented by your leaf blower. The hovercraft hull is you platform disk and so on.
Now you got it all prepared to build hovercraft model for your project in school. This shouldn’t be hard. Your hovercraft project should be able to carry a real person. Of course you can’t guarantee it could carry anyone who is heavier than you. Use your weight as a basis. That is why the platform is suggested to be the size of a manhole cover for this purpose. Last but not least, remember to always pay attention to you science teacher in class.
The new innovations in the science world and technology have changed in time in terms of the aspects of lifestyles. Teaching is a kind of profession that actually deals with the learning and sharing of approaches. These days, some scientific inventions are starting to influence the way educators teach and the concepts widely. Normally, for the science students, interactive teaching has become successful even just for a short span of time. Now that the new innovations are being used in teaching the science students, yet there are still others who are still using the actual subject like in the case of insects. There are some science teachers who are actually using a Ladybug larvae farm kit aside from butterfly for the butterfly experiment caterpillar science project.
Live butterfly projects can still be used and it is possible for the projects in school or for home use to help the kids study even more. The use of butterfly kits for kids when used by the butterfly lesson plan or science projects for the kids can be a big help. The insects will be the best option to study and learn in an easy manner, since they have a short life span only. You can easily learn the life cycle, anatomy, the behavior and the environmental factors of these creatures. The kits are famous and they are fun to be with when used using hands on process. It will be a very fun and exciting experience and it will be a big help for those who wish to learn the best way to come up with a good experiment for the science project.
The caterpillars will just develop into butterflies in just 3 weeks. This is also best for the science fair for the kids to appreciate butterflies and not to kill them. It is also a very fun project for winter and for summer time for kids at home. This is not just for a school project, but also for home use. Why don’t you check on the Ladybug larvae farm kit? There is a shop where you can buy the ladybug kits. These are rearing kits that you can buy, just so you will find out the metamorphosis of the live lady bugs. The certificate of the habitat kit will also be sent to you and this is a must for the larvae shipping before the pink spotted ladybug larvae will be sent to you. It will provide you with an eye view of the bug’s eye.
If there is a nuclear attack, we will die, but the cockroaches are likely to live. Humans can withstand a one-time exposure of 5 rems (a radiation measurement) of radiation. A dose of 800 rems will kill a human. A cockroach, on the other hand, can withstand up to 67,500 to 105,000 rems before succumbing. Think of the science experiments conducted that came up with this fact! Next time you chase a cockroach with a can of spray in your hand, you’ll feel him laughing at you.
If you cut off its head, it could live for a month without it. And don’t try drowning it. The cockroach can hold its breath for 40 minutes. If you try to seal them off, better not leave a space as thin as a dime, because that’s all the space that a young roach needs to crawl into. Roaches of certain species can grow to six inches in length with a 12 inch wingspan. If all other sources of food fail you, a cockroach recipe has been offered that advises simmering in vinegar, boiling with butter, farina flour, pepper and salt to make a paste and then spreading on buttered bread.
Roaches can run at speeds of nearly 2 miles an hour. They can make up to 25 body turns in a second – the highest known rate in the animal kingdom. And, being nocturnal, they do most of this in the dark. So why don’t they crash into things?
The answer is: their antennae. In a series of cockroach-assault course experiments it was found that these much-loathed insects boast highly flexible and seriously sensitive antennae one and a third times the length of their bodies and segmented into between 150 and 170 jointed sections.
Researchers found in science experiments that blinded and deafened cockroaches were able to navigate completely normally, even if their average speeds were lower than their sighted and air-current-sensitive counterparts.
Cockroaches are considered one of the most successful groups of animals; because they are so adaptable, cockroaches have adjusted to living with humans much more readily than humans have adjusted to living with them.
Cockroaches thrive in nearly every corner of the globe, despite our best attempts to eliminate them.
Why is it almost impossible to squish a cockroach before it shoots out of sight behind the refrigerator while it is often quite easy to zap it with the nozzle of a vacuum cleaner?
The answer is that the jet-propelled bug thinks with its behind. The cockroach is able to sense minute changes in the air flowing round its body using tiny hairs on two posterior appendages called “cerci” and that includes your foot coming down.
The vacuum cleaner, however, has even smart roaches fooled. If a vacuum cleaner approaches from behind a cockroach, the wind goes from its head to the nozzle. It thinks the attack is from the front and it turns round and runs straight into the nozzle.
And if food is scarce, adolescent cockroaches can live on a very reliable resource — their parent’s feces. I don’t recommend recreating this particular science experiment.
In the natural world, dodging disaster is vital if you are not going to be pounced on by predators. Now, the world champion dodger has been crowned – the cockroach.
Japan has been able to stimulate the muscles in a cockroach leg with electrical signals so that its movements can be controlled. A tricky science experiment indeed!
There could be big advantages for the military. Rats could be used to check damage at bombed enemy factory sites, where their presence would be unlikely to raise suspicion. Dogs could be used to search for casualties on battlefields and cockroaches could be used to place surveillance devices in military installations.
Among the more futuristic scenarios portrayed in the study, robots called neural network bugs, built like small cockroaches, can crawl to the best location for surveillance. Researchers are now working on controlling and manipulating real cockroaches by implanting microprocessors and electrodes in their bodies. The insects can be fitted with micro-cameras and sensors to reach the places other bugs can’t reach.
The most common injury for them to endure is the loss of a leg. If a predator tugs on a cockroach leg it will fall off at a preset point called an autonomy point, similar to a lizard losing its tail as a reflex to being caught by the tail.
Unlike some other insects which will gradually regenerate a leg over several molting cycles, the cockroach will delay its next molt in order to regenerate its leg. This will provide the cockroach with the swift feet necessary to escape the next enemy quickly. Six legs are better than 5 or 4. The fast escape of the cockroach requires the pattern of running which uses a tripod of legs on the ground at any one time.
One person reported that after cooking pizza in the microwave, the microwave was opened and discovered a small roach still alive.
The microwave oven is amazingly non-uniform in its heating. That is why most of them have carousels to keep the food moving through the focus of the power.
The roach found was clearly not at the focus of the microwave’s power, otherwise it would have exploded under the heat at the focus. Another science experiment that I would not try.
One way to tell the difference in rocks is to pick up two rocks of about the same size. One rock is volcanic and the other rock is granite. You will quickly discern that the granite rock is heavier. This is because it is denser, has smaller air pockets and therefore weighs more than the volcanic rock which is less dense and has bigger air pockets.
You can do an experiment where you will investigate the difference in rocks to see which are more porous, leaving more room for air and gas, and weighing less.
Of what practical interest is a science fair project on the earth science of rocks? The porosity of rock is important to all industries that use rock. In road building, in oil and gas exploration and in many other industries, the porosity of rock is a factor that looms large.
There are many factors that influence rock porosity. In this science experiment you will investigate the effect of particle size on porosity by making a model to test your hypothesis. You will attempt to determine which particles leave the most space and make a more porous matrix, small particles or large particles.
You will attempt to determine how porosity is related to particle size, how much space is left between particles of rock or soil, and how porosity can be measured.
For this experiment you will need clear plastic cups, water, a permanent marker, a measuring cup, and different size rock particles. You want about seven or eight different rock samples. You can get them from your garden, or from a landscape or construction supply company. Get different sizes. Fill each plastic cup with your samples and label the cups with the size of the particles.
Fill your measuring cup with water to the 100 milliliter mark. Pour water into the first sample until full. Make careful records of the amount of water left in the measuring cup. Record your results in a table. Determine the amount of empty space in the sample.
You should subtract the amount of water you measured from 100 ml. If after pouring water into the sample cup, there was 60 ml of water left, you would subtract 60 ml from 100 ml. You will have determined that there is a volume of 40 ml of space between the particles in your cup.
Repeat the above procedures for each sample. Make a chart to compare your results. Which sample had the most empty space. Which sample had the least.
Do you see a relationship between particle size and pore space? You can vary this experiment by using other materials like volcanic rock, or limestone or sandstone or quartz. You may also wish to try using different soils like clay, loam or sandy soil.
In case you are wondering why there are so many different kinds of rocks you may be interested in knowing that all rocks are formed and categorized as being igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded–broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each.
Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. Underground, they are formed when the melted rock, called magma, deep within the earth becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool slowly underground, the magma becomes igneous rocks.
Igneous rocks are also formed when volcanoes erupt, causing the magma to rise above the earth’s surface. When magma appears above the earth, it is called lava. Igneous rocks are formed as the lava cools above ground.
Sedimentary rocks are formed in two ways. Some are formed by pressing together or compacting loose particles which have been deposited on land or in water bodies such as seas or lakes. These loose particles are called sediments. Other sedimentary rocks are formed by the crystallization of dissolved minerals.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have “morphed” into another kind of rock. These rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks. The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure, which fosters heat build up, and this causes them to change. If you exam metamorphic rock samples closely, you’ll discover how flattened some of the grains in the rock. Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have “morphed” into another kind of rock.
Now when you hear the expression “as solid as a rock”, you’ll know just how solid rocks really are. Challenging popular notions, such as the “solid as a rock” expression, make great science experiments. This one will interest a lot of people and teach them about the elements of our planet Earth.
A comparison of with educational publishers may seem a little tenuous. But maybe, like them, the publishers know something. It is significant that there was not any new primary science equipment on the stands at the 2010 ASE Annual Conference in Nottingham this January. Actually, there were not even any old ones. After the years when the stands would be full of files and glossy books and discs, there was nothing for primary teachers to lust after, or even browse on. Whatever the educational publishers are working on, it ain’t primary science.
There may be good reasons for this. Many resources are now available online. It’s possible to look up a lesson plan on one of a hundred websites that offer the full Monty – from planning to assessment. Many staff libraries are already groaning with primary science resources – some of them regularly used. Government publications cover a lot of the ground, and don’t have to make a profit like commercial ones. So it’s a tough time for publishers, waiting to see whether the Rose Report will be adopted – or even if there is a change of government which might put Rose-related publishing in the recycling bin. How do you publish for a curriculum that is significantly local, individual and eclectic? Much safer to print for the National Strategies – go for core sales in language and numeracy. So no new primary science publishing – yet. It wasn’t always so. I recall travelling to Wales, twenty years ago, to talk about the publication of a new primary science scheme. I was mobbed – literally. The talk had to be moved from the school (not big enough) to the village hall. A hundred teachers led me down the street.
It goes without saying that since those days, primary school science has been a huge success story. Through the work of enthusiastic teachers both in and out of schools, it has established itself as an essential part of a full primary education. It certainly helped that it was given core status alongside English and mathematics; that it was subject to SATs testing and to reporting, and importantly that both children and teachers hugely enjoyed it.
The key factor in establishing it so soundly in classrooms in the first place was the work of Education Support Grant teachers. ESG teams across the country worked in different ways to show primary teachers how to manage this ‘new subject.’ The ASE history of primary science makes no mention of these foot soldiers. It’s a shameful omission. The great and the good may have fought the political battles to establish science as a core subject, but the real grass-roots changes were the work of ESG teams and the curriculum leaders in schools, who encouraged and supported primary teachers. The work of science coordinators is the life-blood of the subject. The result of their efforts is the UK’s exceptional showing in international comparisons. We do it well.
I’ve worked for forty years in primary education – the last twenty-five largely in primary school science. When I started, my bible was the Nuffield Junior Science Project. A contributor to it was another enthusiastic young teacher called Jim Rose. Forty years later, the subject is in serious trouble, and ironically, his report is not helping. I’m unconvinced by arguments that primary science is about to enter a great new decade of exciting developments. I’d love to agree, but I’m a primary scientist and I work from evidence. I attended a recent regional ASE meeting on science and the new curriculum, excellently planned and executed, with some really helpful practical ideas. Eight teachers attended. Contrast that with my village hall experience.
A great new era in primary school science? Allow me a Victor Meldrew moment. I don’t believe it.
I’m not the only one to think like this. The Cambridge Primary Review remarks that ‘Worryingly, primary science, which was one of the success stories of the National Curriculum’s first decade, has been squeezed by the national strategies, retaining its albeit reduced place only because it was tested at the end of key stage 2. Science is far too important to both a balanced education and the nation’s future to be allowed to decline in this way.’
Rose reflects current primary practice, and this is welcome. We are assured, too, that primary school science will continue to be assessed and monitored. Nobody wants the SATs back in the form in which they could undermine the whole Year 6 experience – and sometimes science teaching throughout the school. But the loss of core status (even second division core), and of external testing, puts primary science back a couple of decades. This is a blow for enthusiasts; but it will come as a relief to teachers who have always found science difficult and those who have little empathy with the subject.
I find no comfort in the response of the opinion-makers – the QCDA, the SLCs, SCORE, NAIGs and the ASE. It’s not that they don’t have the subject’s best interests at heart. But they seem to have spent too long in the company of the converted. Of course the primary school science enthusiasts will ‘make strong and relevant connections between subjects to ensure meaningful and inspiring learning and full coverage of the whole curriculum’ as the ASE’s ‘Science in the proposed new primary curriculum’. But will this kind of optimistic curriculum-speak be reflected in real schools by real teachers who teach other subjects brilliantly but have no burning desire to teach science?
And where are the skills of science? The ASE response says ‘there is no longer a separation of ‘how to do science’ and ‘things to learn about’. Investigative skills are integrated throughout the area of learning. Children will learn by doing.’ (4) Again, sounds wonderful. No argument there, then. And yet there is. The skills of primary education are not the same as the skills of practical science. The whole point about science is that it’s not a skill common to other curriculum areas. Uniquely, science subjects ideas to practical testing. No other curriculum area does that. If science is allowed to slide into the cosy world of overarching skills and soft topics, a whole generation will lose out on its rigor.
So what should the primary science mafia, the school curriculum leaders, the local authority advisers (where they exist) and the college lecturers who have carried the flag so far, be doing? The optimists are planning for stand-alone science lessons. The pessimists are banking on a change of government. It would be nice to think that the Rose Report would be dropped in the dustbin of history. But that’s unlikely. ‘On 30 April 2009, the government accepted the proposals of the Rose review of the primary curriculum. Since this nominally independent review adhered to a narrow government remit, refrained from questioning existing policy and for good measure was managed by DCSF, its adoption was a foregone conclusion’. Oh, and its brief did not include assessment.
So it’s down to the foot soldiers again, folks. If primary school science is not to be sidelined and finally ditched in the future, they need to ensure that its presence is maintained. And I suggest three pragmatic strategies in your school.
First, aim for a high profile. Some subjects are naturally showy. Science is not. Like PE, the best moments in science are practical and often go unrecorded. The products of science are not as engaging as those of the arty subjects. So go for presence. Record on film, on tape, in pictures. Fill display space. Constantly remind teachers that this is a school where good science happens – and that children gain hugely from it.
Next, push for curriculum time. If there are six topics in a year, make two of them science. Argue that the skills and content can’t possibly be covered if they are given a small corner of a topic on pirates or Vikings. Avoid the super-topics, like ‘water’. We’ve been there before, thirty years ago. They sound like they can be full of science, but most offer great opportunities to relegate investigations to the back burner.
Finally, fight for funding. Science resources are essential for this practical subject. Ensure that consumables are replaced and breakages managed. Go for the exciting and spectacular. The science cupboard should not be a place where magnets go to die; it should be filled with engaging and reliable resources that will excite and engage. You can get amazing stuff these days that I could only dream of when I started.
I see everything I have worked for going down the plug. But don’t worry about me. I’ve got plenty to do. Over the past quarter-century, I’ve been lucky enough to have been involved in writing the primary science resources used in many of our schools – books, television, discs, websites. Nowadays my commissions come from abroad. In many countries, they are waking up to the idea that their children need a sound grounding in science – just as we are forgetting it. Their children want colour and excitement; their teachers can learn from our experience.
I recently had the pleasure of meeting a number of my ex-primary pupils at a school reunion. It was a complete joy, but I especially treasure a comment from one young man, once an enthusiastic ten-year-old, now director of a national professional organisation and an adviser to government. ‘When I was in your class,’ he said, ‘I used to walk to school thinking: Great! Something exciting is going to happen today.’ Just make sure that something exciting happens in your school, too.
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3.Everest University Online: Everest offers online degree options ranging from the associate’s degree in IT/CS to the bachelor’s degree in computer science.
4.Kaplan Continuing Education: Earn information technology certificates including Cisco Certifications and Microsoft Certifications. Kaplan also offers a full range of degree programs from associate’s to master’s in computer and information technology.
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Computer science and engineering is a booming industry–in fact, job growth in this field is expected to outpace almost every other in the next decade. This is because the computer engineer’s ability to solve problems with technological solutions is highly valued across a range of disciplines. From improving healthcare delivery systems to simplifying business operations, computer science and engineering provides a way for us to navigate our complex modern world.
Computer software engineers apply principles of computer science to design software, including video games, databases, and operating systems. They are adept in using various programming languages to tailor existing applications to their clients’ specific needs.
Computer programmers, on the other hand, take software that’s already been designed and program it to work with end-users’ computer systems. Other jobs in computer science include computer scientists, who usually work in academic or research settings, computer support specialists, and computer systems analysts.
A degree in Computer Science and Engineering will cover standard information technology and computer science courses, such as operating systems, database concepts, and object-oriented programming, as well as scientific and mathematical concepts.
Computer Science Program Outcomes
At the successful completion of the program, you should be able to:
Demonstrate basic knowledge of strengths and challenges of current Microsoft Office products
Demonstrate critical thinking
Interpret written programs
Create, design, and maintain web pages
Are you interested in computers? Have you always dreamed of creating programs that thousands of people will use? Do you have excellent mathematical skills? Perhaps you should get a degree in computer science. A degree in computer science will lead to many high paying job opportunities that will be enjoyed by anyone who enjoys working with technology. Options include online undergraduate degrees, like associate computer science degrees, and graduate degrees.
Computer science majors learn about computer hardware, software and programming. Students will learn about computer systems and how humans interact with them. The classes are heavy on programming, and students will learn different computer languages, such as Java. The major relies heavily on mathematics. It also requires that students are able to think creatively in order to solve problems, such as debugging a program.
Coursework for an online computer science program can include classes such as data structures and algorithms, introduction to operating systems, database management, and programming in a variety of technical languages. Students often take advanced mathematics courses–number theory, linear algebra, and differential equations–to supplement their technical skills.
A degree in computer science or a certificate from a computer science school will be the key in becoming a competitive candidate for a job. A computer science degree or certificate can usually be gained in a two to four-year program. Courses at a computer science school or in a computer science distance learning program will include database management, computer systems, internet systems and more.
According to the Department of Labor Occupational Handbook 2004-5, employment in the field of computer science is expected to increase much faster than the average as organizations continue to adopt increasingly sophisticated technologies.
Computer scientists work in virtually all types of organizations. They maintain databases, create websites, provide computer support, create networks and work in all areas of computer maintenance. Computer science school programs can be found at most universities and colleges, but there are also computer science distance learning.